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Food Safety

Resources and Updates





This page is under construction. Check back soon for updated information. 
Documents & Links

The resources for this chapter are divided into four categories, a basic overview of information regarding foodborne illness; the structure of food safety regulation, food safety issues associated with meat and poultry products; and food safety issues with regard to fresh produce. Each begins with the most recent resources, followed by resources referenced in Food, Farming, & Sustainability.  





Foodborne Illness in the United States


Fred Kuchler and Rosanna Mentzer Morrison, Increased Consumer Sensitivity to Food Safety Raised Financial Costs of Ground Beef Recalls, Amber Waves, USDA (Oct. 3, 2016).

Sandra Hoffmann, Quantifying the Impacts of Foodborne Illnesses, Amber Waves, USDA (Sept. 8, 2015).



CDC Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the U.S.


Sandra Hoffmann, Bryan Maculloch, and Michael Batz, Economic Burden of Major Foodborne Illnesses Acquired in the United StatesEcon. Inform. Bull. No. 140 (May 2015).

National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, 2014 Human Isolates Surveillance Report (update from reference cited in Food, Farming,

Sustainability) (description of major findings, NARMS 2014 Rep. webpage).


National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS), 2013

Human Isolates Surveillance Report (cited in Food, Farming,

Sustainability) (description of major findings, NARMS 2013 Rep. webpage).

Sandra Hoffmann and Tobenna D. Anekwe, Making Sense of Recent

Cost-of-Foodborne-Illness Estimates, Econ. Inform. Bull. No. 118

(Sept. 2013).

Michael Moss, The Burger that Shattered Her Life, NY Times (Oct. 3,

2009) (Pulitzer Prize winning article, video, and graphics on meat traceability).

The Structure of Food Safety Regulation

Food Safety: A National Strategy Is Needed to Address Fragmentation in Federal Oversight,GAO-17-74: (Published Jan 13, 2017; Released Feb. 13, 2017).

Renée Johnson, The Federal Food Safety System: A Primer, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. RS22600 (Dec. 16, 2016) (updated from previous version cited in Food, Farming, & Sustainability, dated Jan. 17, 2014).


Maeve P. Carey, Can a New Administration Undo a Previous Administration's Regulations? Cong. Res. Serv. Insight Rep. R44093 (Nov. 21, 2016); see also, Maeve P. Carey, Midnight Rulemaking: Background and Options for Congress, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. R42612 (July 18, 2012).

Seafood Safety: Status of Issues Related to Catfish Inspection, GAO-17-289T  (Published: Dec 7, 2016; Released: Dec 7, 2016).

John F. Sargent Jr., Nanotechnology: A Policy Primer, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. RL34511 (June 28, 2016).

Imported Food Safety: FDA's Targeting Tool Has Enhanced Screening, but Further Improvements Are Possible, GAO-16-399 (Published May 26, 2016, Released May 26, 2016).

John Bovay, Patterns in FDA Food Import Refusals Highlight Most Frequently Detected ProblemsAmber Waves, USDA (Mar. 28, 2016).

Emily M. Lanza, Food Safety Issues: FDA Judicial Enforcement Actions, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. R43927 (Mar. 3, 2015). 


Ron Nixon, Obama Proposes Single Overseer for Food Safety, NY Times (Feb. 20, 2015).

Food Safety: Additional Actions Needed to Help FDA's Foreign Offices Ensure Safety of Imported Food, GAO-15-183 (Published Jan 30, 2015; Released Feb 27, 2015).


Renée Johnson, Food Safety Issues for the 114th CongressCong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. R42885 (Feb. 13, 2015). 


The Federal Food Safety Working Group Progress Report (Dec. 2011). 

Renée Johnson, Food Safety on the Farm, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. RL34612 (Jan. 18, 2011).


76 Fed. Reg. 58,157 (Sept. 20, 2011) (announcing hat Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 will be considered adulterants within the meaning of 21 U.S.C. 601(m)(1) and (3) when found on raw, non-intact beef products, or raw, intact beef products that are intended for use in raw non-intact products). 

Renée Johnson, Food Safety on the Farm, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. RL34612 (Jan. 18, 2011).


Criminal Liability for Causing Foodborne Illness:


Bill Marler, Is it Time for More Criminal Prosecutions in Food Poisoning Cases? Marler Blog (Nov. 28, 2015).



Bill Marler, Opinions, Forbes Magazine

Bill Marler, Life in Prison for Selling Salmonella Tainted Peanut Butter? Marler Blog (July 23, 2015).

Eric Lieberman, Criminal Liability Exposure Under The Food Safety Modernization Act: What Every CEO Should Know, Retail Leader (Apr. 2014).



Issues Related to Meat & Poultry




Summary of Federal Inspection Requirements for Meat Products, USDA, FSIS (Apr. 2016).

Emerging Animal Diseases: Actions Needed to Better Position USDA to Address Future Risks, GAO-16-13 (Published Dec 15, 2015; Released: Jan 14, 2016).

Geoffrey S. Becker, Meat and Poultry Inspection: Background and Selected Issues, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. RL32922 (Mar. 22, 2010).

Antibiotic Use in Livestock & Poultry Production:

GAO, Antibiotic Resistance: More Information Needed to Oversee Use of Medically Important Drugs in Food Animals, GAO-17-192 (Published Mar. 2, 2017; Released Mar. 16, 2017).

Science and Technology Issues in the 115th Congress, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. R44786 (Mar. 14, 2017).

FDA, Judicious Use of Antimicrobials (portal providing direct links to all FDA directives, reports, and announcements).

The Trouble with Antibiotics, PBS Frontline Investigative Report (Oct. 14, 2014) (video and background materials).

Lean Finely Textured Beef:


Joel. L. Greene, Lean Finely Textured Beef: The “Pink Slime” Controversy, Cong. Res. Serv. Rep. No. R42473 (Apr. 6, 2012).


"Pink Slime" Timeline, Food Safety News.


Poultry Issues: 

New Salmonella Rules for Chicken: New Performance Standards for Salmonella and Campylobacter in Not-Ready-to-Eat Comminuted Chicken and Turkey Products and Raw Chicken Parts and Changes to Related Agency Verification Procedures: Response to Comments and Announcement of Implementation Schedule, 81 Fed. Reg. 7285 (Feb. 11, 2016).



Press Release, USDA Finalizes New Food Safety Measures to Reduce Salmonella and Campylobacter in Poultry (Feb. 4, 2016).

The Trouble with Chicken, PBS Frontine Investigative Report (May 12, 2015) (video and background materials).

Food Safety: USDA Needs to Strengthen Its Approach to Protecting Human Health from Pathogens in Poultry Products, GAO-14-744 (Published Sept. 30, 2014: Released Oct. 20, 2014).


Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection, 79 Fed. Reg. 49,566 (Aug. 21, 2014) (codified at 9 C.F.R. pts. 381, 500).



Modernizing” Poultry Inspections Undermines Food Safety Standards, Center for Food Safety (Aug. 1, 2014). 



Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) Produce Safety Standards


Food Safety: FDA's Efforts to Evaluate and Respond to Business Concerns Regarding the Produce Rule, GAO-17-98R (Published Nov. 28, 2016; Released Nov. 28, 2016).

Food Safety: FDA Coordinating with Stakeholders on New Rules but Challenges Remain and Greater Tribal Consultation Needed, GAO-16-425 (Published May 19, 2016; Released May 19, 2016).



Food Safety Modernization Act, § 105 Standards for Produce Safety.

FDA, FSMA Final Rule on Produce Safety (portal providing direct links to FDA final regulation, factsheets, FAQ, and other information regarding implementation).

National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition, FSMA website and resources.






General Legal Resources



Agricultural Law Resources














2010 - present

2010 - present

Foodborne Illness
Foodborne Illness
Meat & Poultry
Produce Safety Standards

The Indigenous Food & Agriculture Initiative at the University of Arkansas School of Law coordinates The Model Food and Agriculture Code Project. The project serves as a resource for tribal governments to provide model codes in food and agriculture for review, adoption and implementation. These codes will support and facilitate agriculture production, food systems improvement and health outcomes improvement in Indian Country.

Leading food safety attorneys Bill Marler and Denis Stearns, of the Seattle based law firm, Marler Clark teach a Food Safety Litigation course each year in the LL.M. Program in Agricultural & Food Law at the University of Arkansas School of Law.

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